what is HIV virus?
The Human Immunodeficiency Virus is a lentivirus that causes HIV contamination and after some time AIDS. AIDS is a condition in people in which dynamic disappointment of the insusceptible framework permits hazardous sharp contaminations and diseases to flourish. An image of virus is shown below.
How HIV is transmitted
HIV is found in the blood and sexual fluids of an individual living with HIV and in the breast milk of a lady living with HIV. Transmission may happen if an adequate amount of these body liquids get into another person’s circulation system.
The walls of the vagina and the rectum are mucous layers, just like the inward covering of the prepuce and the urethra of the penis. Mucous layers are sensitive tissues which give a less powerful hindrance to contamination than the skin outwardly of the body.
Any tears or seeping in these tissues (which might be undetectable) make it less demanding for HIV to get into the circulation system. The nearness of HIV in semen or vaginal liquids implies the infection may go through these mucous films amid unprotected sex.
Explicitly transmitted contaminations (STIs, for example, herpes or gonorrhea can cause ulcerative injuries on mucous films, additionally making the infections more likely.
Different ways by which HIV is transmitted include:
- From a lady living with HIV to her infant, amid pregnancy, labor or breastfeeding
- Through sharing gear used to infuse drugs, for example, needles and syringes
- From blood transfusions and organ transplants, when they have not been cautiously screened for HIV
- Social insurance laborers inadvertently harming themselves with recently utilized syringes and other therapeutic instruments.
How HIV replicates inside the body
When an individual is contaminated with HIV, the infection starts to assault and decimate the CD4 cells of the safe framework. CD4 cells (otherwise called T-helper cells) are a kind of white platelet that play a noteworthy, co-ordinating job in the immune system.
The reason HIV can cause such genuine disease is that the cells the infection uses to reproduce itself are similar cells that the body regularly uses to battle contaminations.
Researchers’ comprehension of how HIV utilizes CD4 cells to reproduce (make duplicates of itself) and spread all through the body have helped them plan antiretroviral drugs. Diverse medications square HIV from repeating.
Keys factors about HIV
- The HIV virus can be spread through infected blood, breast milk, semen, and anal or vaginal fluids contaminating the blood stream.
- The HIV virus attacks the immune system by using the body’s defence cells to replicate, while simultaneously destroying the same cells that protect the body from illness.
- If HIV is not treated with antiretroviral treatment – which works by preventing the virus from replicating – then the body is exposed to opportunistic infections which can cause serious illnesses.