According to chapter 8 of the Indian gaming and regulatory act, what are the different classes of gaming available to federally recognized tribes? According to the reading what have some of the challenges to establishing gaming. What are some of the current benefits of gaming?
The Indian gaming act was established by congress to control and govern the Indian gamming. According to Morison, (1997), the act ought to protect the gaming as a form of the Indian tribal culture. The act divided gaming to three classes where each class established a different set of regulations. In the first is the traditional Indian gaming class. It regulates the ceremonies and the celebrations of the Indian tribe. The second class is the game of chance. This class is famously referred to as the bingo class. The class includes the card games that are played against each other with an exclusion of the electronic or slot machines. The third class is the broad class. In this class, all the other games that are not part of the first and the second class are included. This class includes casino games, wagering games and any game of chance.
Some of the challenges that affect gaming have resulted to various challenges that include conflicts with thin the tribes and the state and the as the Indian gaming act places the gaming as federal regulated policy. There are several current benefits and advantages of gaming that include form of simulation to the economy. Gaming helps in reducing unemployment rate and raise income through tourism. Native gaming also increases the tribal independence in states where there are federally recognized native tribes.
According to chapter 9 how did industrialization impact Wabanaki basket making in Maine? How tourism, production, the great depression, WWII and the RED power movement influence this tradition. Be specific and give examples from the text.
The Wabanaki were the tradition basket makers from the Maine state. The tradition had been practiced by the Indian tribe as a cultural act important to the families and the tribe. However, industrialization had several impact on this traditional industry practiced by the Wabanaki tribe. Industrialization destroyed the commodities that were required to make these baskets. These commodities include ashes and hard wood that were destroyed with industrialization in Maine. These trees were also attacked by ash beetles believed to have migrated from Asia with the industrialization. The red power movement also contributed the federal recognition of the native tribes and their recognition by the government for grants to improve their living conditions. The tradition diminished with modernity and the basket making tradition became the thing of the past.
According to chapter 11, what is the American Indian religious freedom act? How and why was it passed? What is Mayaone and how has this site served as a test of the AIRFA and NAGPRA laws? Be specific and give examples from the text?
This act resulted from the joint congress and federal governments to protect the rights of the natives’ religious beliefs and traditions. These included the native Indians, the Eskimos and the native Hawaiians. The act was passed in several amendment and the first one included the requirements of all federal and state not to interfere with the religious practices of the native religions. The act included avoiding interference with the natives religions sacred places and objects and their possession of the sacred objects. The Mayaone was the ancient sites used by the Indians in the religious practices and was considered sacred. The site was an example of the laws passed to protect the Native American religions site of worship was inability to enforce its provisions. The law also was lacking any condition in its implementation therefore failing to protect important sites that were very crucial to the native religion. The NAGRPRA was signed into law latter ion the 1990- by then president bush with a purpose of preserving the rights of lineal descendants of the Indians and other Native Americans concerning sacred objects, graves among other sites.
The second act was passed to grant the president executive powers to direct all the federal agencies to protect the native religions as well pass legislation that will require such agents to coordinate in protection of the native religions.
There is no defined clause in the United States constitution that directly provides protection to the right of association. However, it is unanimously assumed that voluntary groups like the religious group do preserve the right of associations. The religious communities usually find themselves in the various confrontation with the constitution and the authorities. The churches can use the legal court process when they are in confrontation with the authorities or the constitutions. Examples of cases that demonstrated the conflict between the religion and the state include the native religions were prohibited by the law by the Supreme Court enacted the resolution of the congress to grant these religions freedom. Initially, the native religions were treated as illegal. Another case is the Upholding of the statute baring the use of peyote for religious reasons. The Sequoyah v. Tennessee valley dam that the Indian tribes claimed the construction of the dam will flood their sacred lands (Gubi, 2008).
Other cases are The polygamy Reynolds vs the United States case ruled in 1878 by the supreme court was between the polygamy as practiced by the native religion and state laws(U.S supreme court, n.d). The other case on the confrontation between the religion and authorities is the on the importation of workers to work for religious reasons and the forbidden law against the importation of workers ruled by Supreme Court in the 1892(U.S Supreme court, N.d)
These cases have had significant impact to the rights of the Indian Americans and allowing the right of freedom of religion as stipulated in the bill of rights and the American constitution. They sought to recognize the native religion of the native. In some instances, the government decisions were upheld by the Supreme Court where it was a large disappointment to these religious organizations.
They are ethnic impersonators who impersonated to be white Americans. Their stories tell the pride of being the Indian American declined over the superiority of the white culture. People begin to feel let down by their culture when they do not want to be associated with it anymore like the Indian American cultures in the in the cultures of the white Americans. The imposters also showed the effect of racism the traditional tribes like the Indians. The Indians considered being white a privilege against discrimination. The ethnic impersonators showed the wide racial gap between the American white and the Native American tribe like the Indian American. The book analyzes the critical periods where segregation and decimation was a publically accepted. Most of the Native American tribes are the Indians.
Gubi, J. (2008). Religious Freedom Restoration Act and Protection of Native American Religious Practices, The. Mod. Am., 4, 73.
The U.S supreme court (n.d). the selected supreme cases on religion. Retrieved from http://millercenter.org/debates/religion/supreme-court on 27th April 2016
Morrison, D. A. (Ed.). (1997). American Indian studies: An interdisciplinary approach to contemporary issues. Peter Lang Pub Incorporated.