Environmental Pollution in Qatar: Water Pollution and Sediment Quality Analysis

Environmental pollution in Qatar is a really serious, man-made problem that is facing marine life and the problem. It seems that almost every day there is a new story about pollution. Very often our actions as coastguard officers lead us to just that sea pollution and we have to deal with it.Pollution is anything that is present or introduced into an environment which causes harm (Ypte,2017).  In the sea there are many kinds of anthropogenic pollution such as rubbish, oil, chemicals and even sewage from our toilets! In the last ten years our global waters have borne the brunt of serious pollution accidents, but these are becoming less common as technologies develop and the effects become better understood.  But, there is still an awful lot to learn about the effects of polluting our marine environments.  Often the pollution cannot be seen by the naked eye, and sometimes pollution will never disappear from the water as in the case of plastic. (Ypte,2017)     

In many ways it is our own actions that lead to pollution and in some cases we as individuals can do something about it.  For example, buying local products reduces the demand for food from overseas, reducing the amount of ships needed to carry this food, and in turn reducing the pollution they cause on the oceans and the waste they dispose of.(Ypte,2017)

Qatar is one of the countries that is effected by pollution. Qatar is surrounded by water from three directions which will put it most factories near the shore. Factories in Qatar are polluting the air every day by the chemicals that they are pruning in the air. This is a real problem for the people who are living there and the bigger problem that most of them don’t even notice the pollution. In addition, factories are harming our marine life in many ways for example, Mesaieed Industrial Area.

The Case Study of Pollution in Qatar

Mesaieed Industrial Area is an industrial area in Al Wakrah Municipality in the State of Qatar, approximately 40 kilometers south of Doha. The city has transformed itself over the years from a simple port facility exporting crude oil into Qatar’s main industrial city and center for petrochemical and oil refining. (Qatar Petroleum, 2015) Same as any other industrial area Mesaieed factories are polluting the air and the sea at the same time. Mesaieed Industrial area produce Fuel, steel, aluminum and gas (Revolvy, 2017). Many Qatari people and tourist are visiting every year the Sea line, which is just next to the Mesaieed industrial area. When you go there you can tell that this area is polluted. Not only the people are affected directly by this, marine life is also getting harm because of the factories’ waste. Wastes that are directly discharged into the oceans, resulting in ocean pollution. The dumping of toxic wastes in the ocean such as human waste, food and mining wastes directly affects the marine life as they are considered hazardous and secondly, they raise the temperature of the ocean, known as thermal pollution, as the temperature of these toxic liquids is quite high. Animals and plants that cannot survive at higher temperatures eventually perish (Conserve Energy Future, 2017).

The practical was done at the coast of Mesaieed Industrial Area on Friday the 21 of April 2017. We started our journey in the afternoon after taking our lunch. We reached the industrial area at 2:00 pm, but before we entered the beach we called the manager who was on duty that day to give us the permission to access the area. After we took the right to get in, we went to the beach and we sampled the area for about 2 hours until 4:00 pm. The weather was hot and sunny. We took the water and sediment samples from three different areas of the beach A1, A2 and B3. The longitude and latitude of these three areas was B1 24°88’S 6373 51.543206, B2 was 24.886248 51.543143, A3 was 24.886101 51.543088.

 

1.3 Description of the Qatar Pollution Study Area

The study area is located on the coast of Mesaieed industrial area. The area is very nice and many people go there to have fun with their families. It is a restricted area, but next to the factories there is a public beach. The weather there is very hot in the summer and very cold in the winter. However, when we went there it was hot temperature with calm winds and dry air actual temperature was 35/25 C°, wind  was 10 meters above the ground and speed was less than 1MPH, Average surface water temperature was 21.6 to 25.5 C°, clouds was partly cloudy conditions 74% of the time, precipitation 2% and humidity was less than 8% at 2:00pm (Weather spark,2017). The eastern section of Mesaieed is situated over a low, rocky promontory which is enclosed by sabkhas on the coast. Sabkhas is an area of coastal flats subject to periodic flooding and evaporation which result in the accumulation of aeolian clays, evaporates, and salts, found in North Africa and Arabia. (Oxford living dictionaries, 2017) The southern part of Mesaieed has dunes. Sabkhas lies in the shadow of sand dunes, where the sand dunes form the main source of sediments that built the sabkha. It lies on the southeastern coast covering an area of about 350 km2 (60 % of the total area of sabkhas in Qatar). Sediments here are more than 30 meters thick, mainly quartz and feldspars with fragments of dolomitic limestone, with few evaporates and occasionally thin algal mats in-between. It seems that these sediments were deposited in two cycles separated by a carbonate layer about 3 meters thick (Shinn, 1973).Mesaieed Industrial Area is considered an area with open sea near to the Saudi Arabian sea. Also, Mesaieed and Alwakrah had some mangroves. However, the government have starting a replanting project around the country, the mangrove lake at Al Wakrah was recently uprooted for development. In a country where the harsh desert conditions limit the vegetation growth, mangroves in Qatar provide a haven for birds, fish and mammals. Recent studies have shown that Avicennia Marina populations have the ability to adapt to the varying weather along the Qatar coastline through the evolution of genetic variations in the different mangrove forests (Hend Kader, 2015).

1.4 Aim and objectives

The aim of this report was to assess whether or not there is pollution in the littoral ofQatar and the objectives of this practical were a) to collect sediment samples from three different areas and sites b) see if they comply with the standards of water International quality in those of Qatar c) To analysis the sediment d) to report the weather and environmental conditions.

2. Materials and methods

2.1 Materials

2.1.1 Materials for sampling preparation and sampling at the study area

  • Syringe

a tube with a nozzle and piston or bulb for sucking in and ejecting liquid in a thin stream.

Used during this practical to suck up 3cm of sediment.

Water quality and Sediment pollution Analysis
  • Vials

are small acid-prewashed glass or plastic vessel or bottle, often used to store liquids.

water pollution Analysis
  • markers
  • label
  • cars
  • mobile phones

 

2.1.2 Materials at lab at Plymouth University

  • Lab coat
  • Lab goggles
  • Beaker

     is a simple container for stirring, mixing and heating liquids commonly used in many laboratories.

  • Watch glass
  • Markers
  • Label
  • Oxford A2204 balance

It is a device that is used to measure weights. Max 220g /min o.o1g

  • F1 Gram Box Sets

This device is used to ensuring that your balances and scales are not only correctly adjusted, but also correctly calibrated.

  • Tweezers with rubber at the end

It is used to transfer weights.

  • Enviro MAT SS-2 Soil Standard(100g)

    This soil standard is used as a certified reference material for soil analysis.

  • Thermo Scientific Finnpipette

It is a scientific device used to transfer liquids.

  • Pipette Tips

It is a part of Finnpipette.

  • Hydrochloric acid
  • nitric acid
  • fume hood

This air cleaning device remove fume before it inters the work place.

  • laboratory hot plat CB500(Stuart company)
  • Flasks (50ml)

Chemistry lab clear white plastic measuring beakers.

  • Folded filters
  • Icap 7000 (Thermo scientific)
  • Computer

2.2 Methods

2.2.1 Methods at the study area

After we arrived at the study area, each one of us was given 6 vials and one syringe. Three for water and the other three were for thesediments. We chose three different places of the beach and each site was 20 meters away from the other. But, before going into the water, the following preparation needed to be done. First the vials had to be labelled and syringes had to be cut off at the top in order to suck in 3 cm of the top sediments. Then three of us went into the water carefully and slowly at the same time. We continued walking until the water was above our knees. We waited the sea bed to calm, so we can get a good sediment. We took out our syringes and kneeled down slowly to suck in the sediment. After that the sediment was put in the vial and the process was repeated two more times. Then we went out and put the sediments in a dry place. However, we didn’t finish we went again to the sea to take the water samples. We did the same thing again, but this time we only used the vials to collect our samples. We kneeled down and took three samples of sea water. The sea water was taken from the sea bed and we made sure that no water went in while we are going down.  

  • 2.2.2 Method Laboratory Analysis of Water Quality and Sediment Analysis

Before entering any lab the students must now the following health and safety instructions.  When first entering a science room, do not touch any equipment, chemicals, or other materials in the laboratory area until you are instructed to do so,never work alone in the laboratory, no student may work in the science classroom without the presence of the teacher,do not eat food, drink beverages, or chew gum in the laboratory,  do not use laboratory glassware as containers for food or beverages,work area should be kept clean and tidy at time, be alert andnotify the instructor immediately of any unsafe conditions you observe,labels and equipment instructions must be read carefully before use, keep hand away from face,eyes,mouth, and body while using chemicals or lab equipment,wash your hand with soap and water after performing all experiments, know where the fire alarm and the exit are located, Any time chemicals, heat, or glassware are used, students will wear safety goggles and a lab coat or smock should be worn during lab experiments. (Thackwray, 2017)

Water pollution Analysis Lab requirements

To start the experiment, we took the sediments to the Chemical laboratory ATF, Plymouth University and left them there for 6 days at 60 C° to get dry. After 6 days all of us went there again and Dr. Andrew Fisher, the lab manager, was waiting for us to give us the health and safety instructions. We wore our lab coats, goggles and gloves to get ready for work. After that we started with labeling each vials with its beaker for example, B1(s1, s2, s3), B2(s1, s2, s3) and B3(s1, s2, s3). The B here stand on for the group and the numbers was the number of students. The s for the sediments and the numbers was the number of sediments. Then we used the Oxford A2204 balance to specified weight, but before that we put 10g of the F1 Gram Box Sets in the balance to Check if it working. Now after we were sure that the balance was working, we put the beakers on the balance. There is a button called (Tare) on the balance, we used it to make it to zero. Then we added the sediments until it got to 0.5g and the we did the same process for each sediments sample.After we weighed the sediment into in to the beakers, we added 4.5mL of hydrochloric acid followed by 1.5mL of nitric acid this mixture is called aqua regia. We did this with Thermo Scientific Finnpipette, it is a scientific device used to transfer liquids. Then we left it for about 30 minutes to allow fizzing to die down. After 30 minutes we took the beakers and put them on a hotplate and cover by watch glasses to make sure that samples don’t boil dry. The hotplate was placed in fume hood to make sure that the work place is clean. While waiting for the beakers on the hotplate, we brought the lab kings (Quality control standard 100mg/L) which it contains 26 elements. We used the following equation to find out how many mL we need to use.

C1 V1 = C2 V2

C= concentration

V= volume

We used this 4 number 0, 0.4, 1, 4 mg/L for C2 in our equation. For example,

C1 V1 = C2 V2

100 V1 = 4 ∗ 50

V1 = 200 ÷ 100 = 2 mL

Now we know that to make 4 mg/L we need to take 2 mL of labkings. After that we put 2mL on flask (4mg/L) and do it again for each number of mg/L. when we used 1 mg/L we got 0.5 ml, when we used 0.4mg/L we got 0.2 mL and when we used 0mg/L we got 0 mL. We used this then to produce a calibration graph a signal (plotted on the Y axis) against concentration (x axis). We used these graphs to calculate what is present for elements in the samples. It will produce a signal for each of the elements measured. By putting this signal on the Y axis, a line is drawn horizontally to the calibration curve. When it meets the calibration curve, a line is drawn vertically down to the x axis. This will be the concentration for that element in the sample digest. We used the Enviro MAT SS-2 Soil Standard in our graph to make sure that ever thing is working well. After we are done with this we went back to our beakers on the hotplate and waited them to cool down. While waiting the beakers to cool down, we brought a new flasks and label each flask with it beaker. After that we made sure to put a little amount of 2% nitric acid in each flask and put folded filters on top of each flask followed by adding 2% nitric acid. Now the sediments are cooled down, we took the sediments and put it in the flask through the folded filters. However, we are not finish, we took the beaker and it watch glass and made sure that we are using all the sediment in the beaker and the watch glass by putting 2% nitric acid again in them and put it in the flask. Now after we waited for the filters to dry, we take them off and then add more nitric acid to the flasks until it reached 50mL. Now after we prepared everything, we are finally ready to analyze our sediments. We used the computer to write the samples name for example, standard 1, 2, 3, 4. Then we used a machine called Icap 7000 (Thermo scientific)to analyzed the samples. Every time the machine is done from one standard, we took the hose out and put it in a nitric acid to get washed. Also, after every 10 samples we check the machine by using SS-2 Soil Standard to make sure it doesn’t make up number.

3. Results of the Water Quality and Sediment Analysis

After we are done with the analysis part, we obtained concentrations of the ten major elements in the 27 samples. But the table shows only the mean and standard deviation of elements in the industrial area. For the raw data please access Annex A.

Table1: Mean and standard deviation of element concentration presented in parts per million (PPm)

ELEMENT MEAN STANDERD DEVIATION
B1 Ca 184.006 {483} (Radial) 122566.1923 6945.847222
B2 132364.449 4277.848258
B3 122547.2391 3111.792367
B1 Mg 285.213 {118} (Radial) 15418.2906 514.4186649
B2 15985.41335 600.933347
B3 17046.27361 495.1847255
B1 K 766.490 {44} (Radial) 564.4164561 13.94193664
B2 567.9193059 35.80976364
B3 532.4027943 22.04401055
B1 Cr 267.716 {126} (Radial) 7.627124163 0.89781929
B2 6.89659245 1.210027502
B3 8.048503814 0.311595337
B1 Mn 257.610 {131} (Radial) 47.52946479 3.93178884
B2 44.06954232 1.668155168
B3 51.95263906 5.074626052
B1 Fe 238.204 {142} (Radial) 1993.047657 90.68962608
B2 1862.862923 64.13097418
B3 2213.800883 190.2326802
B1 Ni 221.647 {452} (Radial) 7.54115173 1.117187565
B2 7.083575653 0.269567775
B3 8.088225886 1.217079696
B1 Cu 324.754 {104} (Radial) 3.016092419 0.48008519
B2 3.215851823 0.458198183
B3 3.253923926 0.035413105
B1 Zn 213.856 {458} (Radial) 5.756880065 0.355693114
B2 6.681888351 1.042565417
B3 8.519250299 1.46877798
B1 Al 396.152 {85} (Radial) 2196.535754 79.63427982
B2 2306.914879 97.1482376
B3 2526.124678 269.7220909

As you can see the table shows three means and their standard deviation for each elements. We took the samples from three areas with in the same beach that why they are the same, but with different means and standard deviation.

water pollution Analysis

Figure1: Calcium concentrations at three sites showing means and their standard deviation

As it shows in table1 and Figure 1, we can say that the concentration of calcium is higher than the other 9 elements. Its lowest mean was 122547ppm in site 3 and it highest mean was 132364ppm in site 2. Also, we can see by the error bars that site 1 has the highest standard deviation than the other two areas.

magnesium concentration Analysis of Water pollution

Figure2: Magnesiumconcentrations at three sites showing means and their standard deviation

Magnesium is the second element in table1 and we can see that the concentration shows numbers in ten thousands. The higher mean was in site 3 with 17046ppm and the lowest was in site 1 with 15418ppm. In addition, if we see the error bars we will say that they are all similar, but if we go back to the raw data in table1, we will see that the highest standard deviation was in site 2.

potassium content Analysis of Water Quality

Figure3: Potassiumconcentrations at three sites showing means and their standard deviation

As we can see the numbers of concentration went down again as it did in Figure 2, but still Figure3 is not the lowest reading between them. Site 2 show a higher mean of 567ppm while Site 3 show the lowest mean of 532ppm. The highest standard deviation was in site 2 and the lowest was in site 1.

chromium level Analysis of Water pollution

Figure4: Chromiumconcentrations at three sites showing means and their standard deviation

Chromium gave us a low set of means if we compared them with the previous graphs, however is not the lowest means between the 10 elements. The highest mean was in site 3 with 8.04ppm and the lowest was in site 2 with 6.89ppm. Another thing you can notice here that the standard deviation of the three sites are lower than the standard deviation of the previous Figure.

water Analysis of manganese concentration

Figure5: Manganeseconcentrations at three sites showing means and their standard deviation

The Figure show that the third site has the highest mean and standard deviation between the three sites. The mean in the third site was 51ppm and the standard deviation was 5.07ppm.

water pollution by iron sediments

Figure6: Ironconcentrations at three sites showing means and their standard deviation

We can see that the concentration went back to thousands, but the error bars show a low standard deviation in this element. The highest area again as it did in the previous Figure is site 3 with mean of 2213ppm and standard deviation of 190ppm.

nickel concentration in Water Quality Analysis

Figure7: Nickelconcentrations at three sites showing means and their standard deviation

Nickel Figure shows a low range of concentration, but still not the lowest between the ten elements. The highest value for both mean and standard deviation was in the third site again. The mean was 8.08ppm and standard deviation was 1.2ppm.

copper pollution of water in qatar

Figure8: Copperconcentrations at three sites showing means and their standard deviation

From all ten elements Copper had the lowest reading for concentration. We can see that the third site has the highest mean, but the lowest standard deviation. While the other two siteshave high standard deviation.

zinc pollution of water in qatar

Figure9: Zincconcentrations at three sites showing means and their standard deviation

Zinc had lower reading of concentration but still higher than Copper. The highest mean and standard deviation between the three sites was site 3 again with mean of 8.51ppm and standard deviation of 1.46ppm.

aluminum levels in Qatar Water sources

Figure10: Aluminumconcentrations at three sites showing means and their standard deviation

We can see that the concentration reading increased to thousands as it did in Figure 6. Also, we can see that the third site had both the highest mean and standard deviation again as it did in most of the previous Figures. The mean for site 3 was 2526ppm and the standard deviation was 269ppm.

 

Discussion on Pollution in Qatar

Water and soil are the main components making up the worlds’ surface. If the world is to be conserved, these two must be taken care of.  However, it is not possible to conserve the environment without protecting vegetation. Vegetation can be looked after by ensuring that the soil they grow in is well taken care of. Vegetation such as trees helps to keep the soil healthy by preventing soil erosion. Trees also attract rain and take in carbon dioxide from air thus acting as purifiers. The mineral composition of soil and water must be optimal for a pollution free environment. To determine the mineral state of soil and water, it is necessary to take samples which are used to determine whether they meet the international standards. The determining factor is the mineral composition of water and soil. In the study, the main minerals of interest were calcium, magnesium, potassium, chromium, manganese iron, nickel, copper, zinc and aluminum.  

According to (Bouchard, 2011) manganese concentration in soil is found to be optimal at 550 ppm. On the contrary, Manganese concentration was found to reach levels of 51 ppm from the soil sample taken which indicates deficiency.  Zinc concentration was calculated at 8.51 ppm. According to (Radiata, 2017) suitable concentration of zinc in soil should be above 6.0 ppm. Like any other mineral, zinc is of essential in soil since it promotes metabolism in plants. Levels of magnesium were found to be high as the mean reached 17046ppm. According to (Rowel, 2014) neutral soil have a concentration of 550ppm of magnesium. Although Magnesium is important in formation of chlorophyll which is essential in growth of vegetation, data collected suggests that the level of magnesium is relatively high.  A recording of 557 ppm was taken for the concentration of potassium while that of iron was found to be 190 ppm. Potassium is very important because of the role it plays in plants. It is responsible for regulating the uptake of carbon dioxide and also maintains the water content in plants.

Nickel and iron concentration was recorded at 8.08 and 2213 ppm respectively. Although copper is important in growth, it is needed in small quantities while nickel is essential in nitrogen fixation. Copper indicated to be of lowest concentration in the soil. All these nutrients are important but only if they are in required quantities.  In as much as industrialization is important because of development purposes, it should not be at the expense of destroying the environment. However, the results obtained from the study may have been affected by several factors which include errors made during collection and recording of the data including handling of the same. From the results obtained, there is need to check the level of minerals in both water and soil. This should be accompanied by restrictive measures that ensure mineral levels are kept at optimal values.

Conclusion

From the data collected, it is possible to deduce that certain minerals occupy much higher constitution in the soil. Minerals like calcium, magnesium, Potassium and aluminum are found in large quantities while zinc, iron and copper are in smaller amounts. This is an indication that the soil in the beach area is alkaline. These levels of minerals are greatly brought about by human activities as in the case of existence of industrial companies which emit toxic substances both in air and water. Industrialization in Qatar has become an issue of concern when it comes to environmental pollution. The well being of the environment and the people themselves is important to consider and this can be done through ensuring that pollution is prevented. The high alkalinity of the soil and water indicate that the environment is polluted and measures should be taken to control the vice.

Possible solutions to soil and water pollution

There are various actions that can be taken to control pollution and keep\p it at bay. Some of the measures that can be taken to prevent water pollution include treatment of wastes by companies before they dispose it in rivers and other water bodies. Laws should be put in place that protects the environment where offenders should pay a high price for pollution of the environment. There is also need for setting up of plants that treat organic and properly dispose inorganic waste to ensure that pollutants do not reach the environment. Actions such as planting trees can be taken to prevent soil pollution while at the same time control air pollution. On a personal level, people should refrain from activities such as pouring of chemicals such as insecticides in toilets and also keeping the beaches clean by disposing trash adequately. Not only is it important to prevent pollution for the sake of the environment, it is also important because it prevents calamities such as poisoning or outbreak of diseases. Other means of preventing pollution include creating awareness to the public and also carrying out of routine cleaning to keep the environment clean. Soil can be protected through recycling of inorganic materials such as plastic bags and also encouraging the use of biodegradable products.

References

Bouchard, M. (2011). Manganese in Drinking Water: Bouchard Responds. Environmental Health Perspectives, 119(6), pp.a241-a241.

Conserve Energy Future. (2017). Causes and Effects of Ocean Pollution – Conserve Energy Future. [Online] Available at: http://www.conserve-energy-future.com/causes-and-effects-of-ocean-pollution.php [Accessed 18 Jun. 2017].

Kader, H. (2015). Mangroves in Qatar: Perspectives. [Online] EcoMENA. Available at: http://www.ecomena.org/mangroves-in-qatar/ [Accessed 27 May 2017].

Oxford Dictionaries | English. (2017). sabkha – definition of sabkha in English | Oxford Dictionaries. [Online] Available at: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/sabkha [Accessed 18 Jun. 2017].

Qatar Petroleum. (2015). Mesaieed Industrial City. [Online] Available at: https://www.qp.com.qa/en/QPActivities/QPOperations/Pages/IndustrialCitiesDetails.aspx?IID=6 [Accessed 16 May 2017].

RADIATA, V. (2017). Analysis of Response of Different Chelated Zinc Sources on Micro and Macro Nutrients Uptake in Moong Plant and Seed. International Journal of Applied and Pure Science and Agriculture, 3(4), pp.91-95.

Revolvy, L. (2017). “Mesaieed Industrial Area” on Revolvy.com. [Online] Revolvy.com. Available at: https://www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Mesaieed%20Industrial%20Area [Accessed 18 Jun. 2017].

Rowell, D.L., 2014. Soil science: Methods & applications. Routledge.

Shinn, E.A. (1973), Sedimentary Accretion along the leeward of S.E. Coast of Qatar Peninsula, Persian Gulf, In the Persian Gulf. Purser B.H. (Ed.), Springer Verlag, pp.199-209

Thackwray (2017). Lab Safety Rules. [Online] Nobel.scas.bcit.ca. Available at: http://nobel.scas.bcit.ca/debeck_pt/science/safety.htm [Accessed 18 Jun. 2017].

Weather spark (2017). The Typical Weather Anywhere on Earth – Weather Spark. [Online] Weatherspark.com. Available at: https://weatherspark.com [Accessed 18 Jun. 2017].

Young People’s Trust for the Environment. (2017). Sea Pollution. [Online] Available at: https://ypte.org.uk/factsheets/sea-pollution/polluting-the-seas [Accessed 16 May 2017].

 

Appendix 1

Ca Mg K Cr Mn
std 1 0.34029647 0.375030951 4.119115045 0.384196646 0.387571027
std 2 0.900634644 0.94989273 10.01476178 0.966084352 0.989091349
std 3 4.030811692 4.015023722 39.98439805 4.010059247 4.00397006
proc blank 0.073063654 -0.000193633 0.003848338 0.00476528 0.001236992
A1 S1 205252.2953 14943.10997 478.527788 3.291246917 16.66322312
A1 S2 216347.63 16507.77213 569.2405796 3.500605712 18.35220444
A1 S3 215636.883 15885.37438 577.3171515 3.08976988 17.42595581
A2 S1 208683.025 15993.92584 503.3176101 3.292669124 17.80129005
A2 S2 214794.1539 15947.50961 548.7491791 3.735662109 18.28504929
A2 S3 200500.424 15740.87129 571.2623017 2.694128445 17.34319204
A3 S1 250175.925 16888.0329 567.0263719 5.492184528 19.65105636
A3 S2 208655.4751 16889.17284 511.4522515 5.690745963 19.9114736
A3 S3 209124.986 23630.65442 505.7665028 3.660339395 29.42483182
check 1 5.530718429 4.18727886 41.87853921 3.985451457 3.98921737
B1 S1 115611.2569 14836.83307 566.6624867 7.04128735 44.23416597
B1 S2 129502.9155 15603.86745 549.4878584 8.660769172 51.88168769
B1 S3 122584.4044 15814.17127 577.0990233 7.179315968 46.47254072
B2 S1 128332.764 15295.39069 539.2457409 5.500718977 42.31264482
B2 S2 136851.9555 16267.00205 556.4547479 7.647628086 45.63189533
B2 S3 131908.6275 16393.84733 608.057429 7.541430286 44.26408682
B3 S1 124124.8438 17157.56452 556.7607659 8.222192024 52.64604669
B3 S2 118962.6141 16504.91357 526.6234424 7.688775195 46.56696522
B3 S3 124554.2594 17476.34275 513.8241745 8.234544224 56.64490528
check 2 4.713106115 4.091010473 39.38345468 4.0933478 4.064598893
C1 S1 205901.1378 15874.40158 307.344792 2.883655231 13.44823735
C1 S2 216477.7188 14514.00129 294.492427 1.917967712 11.27875813
C1 S3 200519.3705 24641.03849 327.4702795 3.419937377 21.77588112
C2 S1 212796.0068 16551.81941 271.1013694 2.965100584 13.38196254
C2 S2 214107.8342 16416.14645 265.6772178 2.875835501 12.48153952
C2 S3 220665.4309 13704.70089 310.4510883 4.286731138 11.25849526
C3 S1 212888.0932 13290.73962 280.5632258 3.159506992 10.43674434
C3 S2 205084.5957 29574.737 339.464799 5.048941741 28.48479195
C3 S3 223394.9841 14231.96879 277.9495753 3.51883361 11.27444286
check 3 6.022947265 4.19230974 43.28517648 3.937195108 3.912682984

Raw data results to Ca, Mg,K,Cr,Mn

Fe Ni Cu Zn Al
std 1 0.407899204 0.399876861 0.380902357 0.38358128 0.382951262
std 2 0.998456374 0.972856197 0.970594376 0.974940475 0.951286309
std 3 3.999595986 4.006798265 4.00926117 4.007906753 4.013883297
proc blank 0.010547086 -0.01977831 0.001248139 0.000165599 -0.001546381
A1 S1 527.9351223 3.928385621 2.887821374 6.578171172 695.3393201
A1 S2 567.812181 2.481868067 3.421598996 6.07788844 746.2148102
A1 S3 569.6357353 2.041694841 2.382777581 3.64821299 757.9766651
A2 S1 556.4093843 3.39365228 2.496007923 3.346385243 759.1781869
A2 S2 563.7238104 3.140816886 2.687768256 3.478127715 733.8641192
A2 S3 535.1987874 2.567438865 2.903052396 3.865246901 697.737592
A3 S1 546.7457207 1.019568778 4.887778345 5.864029042 668.5189237
A3 S2 565.3641444 1.394187709 3.27913923 4.812562814 709.091157
A3 S3 582.5640558 2.889946421 2.656360272 3.952332084 763.4926693
check 1 4.030139337 3.956591785 4.034606019 3.954188186 4.078480243
B1 S1 1946.627414 7.163831014 3.343372431 6.11562333 2171.685864
B1 S2 2097.55033 6.661481679 2.464963529 5.404317661 2285.63195
B1 S3 1934.965226 8.798142497 3.239941297 5.750699205 2132.289448
B2 S1 1790.220256 7.071062164 3.731759004 5.599022859 2199.392226
B2 S2 1886.731786 6.820482541 3.059512261 7.678836622 2332.982537
B2 S3 1911.636728 7.359182253 2.856284205 6.767805573 2388.369875
B3 S1 2267.918045 8.293513693 3.22272191 10.20633504 2758.503609
B3 S2 2002.373183 6.781557201 3.246635773 7.826099289 2230.352277
B3 S3 2371.111422 9.189606763 3.292414094 7.525316567 2589.518147
check 2 4.071858013 3.966903553 4.010067772 3.943082596 3.976019195
C1 S1 307.3336501 0.868026943 2.351163721 8.117010609 309.3152242
C1 S2 329.8096911 1.332251293 2.470107571 3.940824137 379.2540478
C1 S3 490.2679007 1.676285562 2.548375954 3.697743329 504.0995614
C2 S1 353.5926038 -0.285817406 2.9659022 6.417762391 372.317864
C2 S2 332.3942393 2.18557424 2.744246657 5.484748386 367.1356184
C2 S3 382.1876802 0.785389036 1.050506546 3.58079096 557.0134327
C3 S1 347.5665885 1.303831733 0.986338633 2.660988185 445.1939632
C3 S2 441.6151013 2.979323052 1.371696719 4.098182484 545.8715779
C3 S3 273.7793756 3.336767325 0.777140908 1.957656895 289.6067596
check 3 3.9363452 3.922106526 4.10641194 3.918054488 4.14994702

Raw data results for Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Al